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Afghanistan

Yearbook 2019

Afghanistan. The postponed presidential election, which should have taken place in July, was conducted on September 28. When it was decided in March to postpone the election for another two months, the electoral authority had not even finalized the result of the parliamentary elections in October 2018. The result of the presidential election was not clear at the end of November due to administrative and technical problems. What is clear, however, is that 72,000 police and soldiers were required to ensure the safety of voters. Despite this, about 400 of nearly 5,000 polling stations were forced to stay closed. During the Election Day, the Taliban conducted between 70 and 400 attacks - the information varies in different sources. However, the result is the same - five dead soldiers, at least 40 injured civilians and a turnout of 25%. Since the election campaign began on July 28, at least ten people have been killed, and the threats from the Taliban had caused 18 candidates to step down. In addition, information on widespread electoral fraud was received, prompting one of the candidates, as well as Prime Minister Abdullah Abdullah, to demand that the vote count be stopped in November. The question is therefore whether the election results will be published at all.

2019 Afghanistan

2019 AfghanistanOnly on December 22, the country's electoral commission was able to present a preliminary election result that indicated that incumbent President Ashraf Ghani had won with 50.6% of the vote. The nearest rival Adhullah Abdullah received 39.5%.

According to CountryAAH, the number of deaths in the armed conflict in 2018 was just over 3,800, the highest figure since 2009, when these statistics began to be published, and just over 10% more than the year before. The reason is, among other things, that the Islamic State (IS) carried out more acts of terrorism and that the fight against the Taliban and IS led to increasingly intense air strikes by Afghan and US forces. The 2019 figures don't look any better; only 1,250 civilians were killed in the first half of the year, and up to 1,200 in the following quarter (July - September).

Despite the violence, 800,000 Afghans returned from neighboring Iran in 2018. According to the United Nations Organization (International Organization for Migration), there was an increase of over 65%. One of the reasons for the increase is that US sanctions are pushing Iran hard. UNHCR reported at the end of 2018 that one million registered Afghan refugees and close to 2 million paperless Afghans were in the neighboring country.

At the end of January, the Taliban agreed with the United States on a framework for a peace agreement. If the Taliban prevent terrorism on Afghan territory and put down their weapons and initiate talks with the Afghan government, the United States promises to call home its soldiers. The United States entered Afghanistan after the attacks in New York on September 11, 2001.

In July, further talks were held between the Afghan government and the Taliban, with Qatar and Germany as mediators. A joint statement stated that the two parties would work for a peace agreement, which was monitored internationally. To get there, they promised, among other things, to stop attacks on hospitals, schools and other community services and that no civilian casualties would be harvested. It was also agreed that "within the framework of Islam" respect women's rights, both economic and social and political. In November, a smaller prison exchange took place - a symbolic goodwill act for further talks. The Taliban handed over an American and an Australian citizen, both professors from the American University in Kabul, to the US forces, while the Afghan government released three Taliban leaders.

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