Angola. According to
CountryAAH, the country continued to be plagued by drought
during the year. Combined with insufficient efforts, this
caused a crisis situation where up to 1 million people in
the southern parts of Angola needed emergency assistance.
According to a report by UNICEF in April, more than 2.3
million people, including almost half a million children,
were at risk of eating too little food. In January,
President João Lourenço announced a state of disaster in the
three southern provinces of Cunene, Huila and Namibe, and in
October the Catholic Church pleaded with him to do so again,
as the situation was still critical.
In January, Parliament voted in favor of legislative
changes which meant that homosexuality was no longer banned.
In addition, anti-discrimination rules were introduced
because of sexual orientation.
Around the year 500, there were settled peasants all over
present-day Angola. They had a relatively high material
development, knew the iron, had large cattle herds and were
also fishermen. Until the year 1000, tribal kingdoms and
kingdoms emerged. The strongest of the kingdoms were Congo
on both sides of the lower Congo River, and Ndongo, south of
the Congo. The king of Ndongo was called Ngola, which the
Portuguese converted to the name of the state formation
Angola. Until Europeans arrived, the various kingdoms lived
largely peacefully side by side.
Slave trade and colonization
The first Portuguese rose ashore at the mouth of the
Congo River in 1482, thus initiating colonization. It
initially took place through mission stations and trade.
Only later did the Portuguese start sending expeditions into
On the other side of the Atlantic, Portugal had in the
early 1500s become Brazil , where large sugar plantations
were built. For them, labor was needed and the slave trade
from West Africa began. From 1500 to 1820, 4-5 million
slaves were shipped - from Angola alone. It is the direct
cause of the dispersed population structure that continues
to characterize the country. The earlier development of the
country stopped when the most productive part of the
population was sent out of the country. The former peace was
broken by Portuguese weapons and because tribal chiefs and
traders were allowed to use as slave buyers for the
Portuguese. The slavery and wars reduced the Angolan
population from 18 million in 1450 to just under 8 million
The Portuguese colonization of Angola was slow.
Especially because the Angolans continued their opposition
to the Portuguese colonization. Among the main opponents
were: Ngola Kiluange, Nzinga Mbandi, Ngola Kanini and
Mandume. The so-called Centennial War (1573-1680) with the
Ndongo Empire brought the Portuguese to the River Cuanza,
but not until the end of the 1800s and until 1920 did the
colonial rulers gain military control over the entire
territory. When the European great powers divided Africa
between them at the Berlin Conference in 1885, Portugal was
awarded the area that is now Angola.