Libya. In early April, General Khalifa Haftar and his
forces in the Libyan National Army (LNA) launched a military
offensive against the capital Tripoli, where the so-called
Unity Government (GNA) has its headquarters.
CountryAAH, the battles developed into clean battlefields on the
outskirts of the city and the humanitarian situation was
aggravated by the lack of water, medicines and recurrent
power cuts. The World Health Organization WHO warned against
measles, tuberculosis and diarrhea.
The unrest led to peacekeeping forces leaving the
country, while foreign companies called their staff home.
The UN Security Council suspended a national conference that
would have been held in the city of Ghadamis the same month.
In recent years, Haftar and LNA have won a series of
battles that have led Haftar to control the entire eastern
and large parts of southern Libya. GNA controls the western
Oppositions also arose in both the UN Security Council
and the EU, where it was difficult to agree on a joint
condemnation of Haftar's offensive. In the EU it was stopped
by France and in the Security Council both the Russian
Federation and the US stated that a joint resolution on
ceasefire in Libya could not be supported. According to
analysts, the reason was likely that the countries saw
Khalifa Haftar as a potentially stabilizing factor in Libya.
Unlike the Tripoli government, Haftar has a strong army
In addition, countries such as Saudi Arabia, the United
Arab Emirates, the Russian Federation, and Egypt are all
openly allied with Haftar. According to the US newspaper The
Wall Street Journal, Saudi Arabia offered Haftar tens of
millions of dollars a few days before the attack against
By the end of April, Haftar's offensive had been stuck on
the outskirts of the capital, where fighting intensified in
May. More and more people were forced to flee their homes
and the number of people who died or was injured rose week
Despite the UN arms embargo on Libya, reports came that
both Haftar's army and GNA were equipped with weapons from
UN Special Envoy in Libya Ghassan Salamé stated that as
many as ten countries became involved in Libya's problems.
According to analysts, the arms transports were a sign that
the war was about to turn into a so-called proxy war, in
which other countries in the region exploited the conflict
for their own interests. On one side were Egypt, the United
Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia and on the other Turkey and
The fact that Turkey delivered weapons to GNA in Libya
particularly upset neighboring Egypt. A spokesman at
Nasser's military academy in Cairo said he feared Turkey
would take control of Libya. He was also concerned that the
weapons could fall into the hands of the terrorist group
Islamic State (IS).
At the end of June, Khalifa Haftar ordered his army LNA
to attack Turkish targets and economic interests in Libya.
The order was issued shortly after Haftar lost control of
the city of Gharyan, just south of Tripoli. Gharyan was
captured by the LNA two days before the offensive against
Tripoli began and served as a base for the LNA's combat
According to a UN report, at least 53 people died and 130
were injured when a migrant camp in Tajoura outside Tripoli
was bombed for two rounds in July. In the first air raids,
Libyan guards had also opened fire on refugees and migrants
who tried to flee.
Both UN leader António Guterres and his Libyan envoy
Ghassan Salamé as well as the African Union (AU) condemned
the attack in strong terms. According to Salamé, it was
equivalent to war crimes.
As the situation of migrants and refugees in Libya
worsened in connection with the offensive against Tripoli,
hundreds of people from various detention centers in the
capital were sent to a facility on the Libyan coastal city
of Khums. At the same time, according to media reports in
July, the UN refugee agency UNHCR had evacuated thousands of
migrants to safer places since April. However, the alarm
reports on torture, slave trade and sexual abuse against
migrants and refugees were several during the year.
At the beginning of August, at least 42 people died and
50 were injured in an air raid against a city hall in Murzuq
in southwestern Libya. The unit government GNA accused LNA
and forces loyal to Haftar for carrying it out.
According to WHO estimates at the end of August, more
than 1,000 people had been killed in the fighting since
April. In addition, 5,700 people were injured and around
120,000 people were forced to leave their homes.
In September, Rwanda signed an agreement with the African
Union and UNHCR to host African refugees and asylum seekers
permanently in Libya. The Rwanda government said the country
was ready to accommodate up to 30,000 people.
In November, a UN-flagged secret report by the AFP news
agency confirmed that both Turkey and Jordan and the United
Arab Emirates had repeatedly violated the arms embargo on
Libya introduced by the UN in 2011.