Nepal. In the spring, a record number of climbers tried
to reach the summit of Mount Everest. The large number in
combination with unusually strong winds caused cows to be
formed on the rock. As a result, more climbers than usual
were killed in the cold. In just a few weeks in May, eleven
people died. Following criticism, the authorities considered
placing higher demands in terms of experience and good
health on those who were granted climbing permits.
CountryAAH, the summer monsoon rains were more intense than usual. It
affected Nepal, as did India, Bangladesh and Pakistan. In
Nepal, the Baghmati River was flooded at the same time as
roads, bridges and buildings were damaged. As a result of
landslides, 90 people perished in July.
In September, India and Nepal inaugurated the first oil
pipeline in South Asia that crosses national borders. The
project was part of India's attempt to increase its
influence in Nepal, where China also makes great claims. The
oil pipeline would allow Nepal to import oil from India at a
lower price. India is Nepal's only oil supplier.
During a visit by China's President Xi Jinping in
October, several collaborative projects in education and
trade were signed. The countries also signed an agreement on
a railway across the border from Tibet to Kathmandu. The
railway was part of China's new silk road (Belt and Road
Initiative, BRI), which will link Asia with Europe and
Africa via both railways and roads on land and at sea.
According to Reuters news agency, Xi Jinping's visit to
Nepal was the first of a 22-year-old Chinese head of state.
Later that month, Nepal's defense minister visited his
Chinese counterpart in Beijing. At that time, an agreement
was signed that China would give Nepal $ 21 million in
emergency aid in the coming years.
2008 From Kingdoms to Republic
On December 28, 2007, the Transitional Parliament passed
a bill that made the country a republic. However, it was
only with the ratification of the proposal in the
Constitutional Assembly on May 28, 2008, that the country's
days as kingdoms were finally over. It is now a federal
The Constitutional Assembly was elected on April 10,
2008, and its main purpose is to give the country a new
constitution. This must be done within a period of 2 years.
During the same period, the Assembly also has a function as
the legislative power of the country. It consists of 601
members, of whom 240 were elected by direct constituency,
335 seats were occupied through proportional representation,
and 26 seats were appointed. The Maoist Party (CPN (M))
became the largest in the April elections, receiving half of
the 240 constituencies and 30% of the proportional mandates.
In late June, the parties in the Assembly agreed on a
distribution key for the 26 nominated members. The Maoists
got 9, the Congress Party and the country's second Communist
Party each got 5, and the rest went to smaller parties.
Following the transformation into a republic, the first
important task of the Constitutional Assembly was to appoint
a president. In June, the acting prime minister and chairman
of the Congress party, Girija Prasad Koirala, filed his
resignation petition for the assembly. The reason was that
the Moists opposed his tenure as presidential candidate. On
July 19, the first round of the presidential election was
conducted in the Constituent Assembly. Ram Baran Yadav of
the Congress Party got 283 votes while Maoist-backed Ram
Raja Prasad Singh got 270. In the second round of the July
21 election, Yadav got 308 votes out of the 590 cast. He
thus became Nepal's first president and was placed in the
post 2 days later.
Maoese President Prachanda was elected the first prime
minister of the republic in August 2008. However, he had to
leave office as early as May 2009 when his attempt to fire
the army chief of staff, General Rookmangud Katawal, failed.
The president opposed the firing. General Katawal had
bitterly opposed the incorporation of the Maoists into the
army, as stipulated in the peace agreement, and this was the
reason for Prachanda's intention to remove him. The clash
between the president and the prime minister led to the
collapse of the government coalition. Instead, Madhav Kumar
Nepal was appointed prime minister. Behind him he spent 15
years as chairman of Nepal's Communist Party, CPN (UML). The
Maoists stood outside the new government and have since
worked actively to destabilize it through, among other
things. frequent general strikes.
In November 2008, the country's Supreme Court issued a
ruling paving the way for same-sex marriage. Nepal thus
became the first country in Asia to take this step. In July
2009, the country abolished the death penalty - as one of
the first countries in Asia.