Until 1914, the Saudi state was rebuilt and became a factor
of power in central Arabia, posing a threat to the Ottomans
as well. Russia, France and Germany, in turn, tried to
reinforce their influence in the region. It forced the
British to formalize relations with the "ceasefire states",
Bahrain, Oman and Kuwait, leaving the responsibility of
foreign policy to the English government.
the first World War, which also marked the end of the
Ottoman Empire and meant independence for some of the
countries of the Arabian Peninsula, did not change the
relationship between Britain and the Ceasefire States.
London had a great influence on the leader of the new
kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Abd al-Aziz. As something new, air
routes were established with airports in the Gulf region,
which, together with the airports in Egypt, Palestine and
Iraq, played an important role.
In the interwar period, Britain concentrated its
attention on Egypt and Iraq, where oil reserves had already
begun. After the end of World War II, relations between the
Arab states changed significantly. In 1945, the Arab League
was established, with the participation of the countries
that had achieved a certain degree of independence.
By the early 1960s, it had become clear that oil deposits
in the Middle East were among the largest in the world. The
United States and the United Kingdom, in collaboration,
sought to maintain control over the Gulf region, where the
countries' revenues for almost 100% came from the oil.
Abd al-Nasser's growing influence in the Arab world
forced the English to give more power to the local
governments in the protectorate. In 1968 it was decided to
withdraw all military from the area; the same year was
established as a subdivision of OPEC, the oil producing
countries association, OPAEC, which consisted exclusively of
the Arab oil exporting countries.
When the British finally withdrew from the area in 1971,
a major extraction of the wells in Abu Dhabi started. The
establishment of internal borders in the region was of great
importance. At the British initiative, the same year, the
United Arab Emirates was created without the participation
of Qatar or Bahrain.
Immediately after its founding, the new state was forced
into a conflict with Iran, which, with reference to history,
invaded the islands of Abu Mussa, Tunb al-Cubra and Tunb al-Sughra
in the Strait of Hormuz. In the beginning, there was a
steady growth in oil extraction, first and foremost in the
three largest emirates: Abu Dhabi, which accounted for 79%,
Dubayy and Sharja, while increasing national control over
When OPEC decided in 1973 to raise oil prices by 70%
while reducing production by 5%, a new era for relations
with the industrialized world began. The consequences of
this policy were revolutionary. From spot prices of $ 1.5 a.
In the early 1970s, prices increased in 1973 to $ 10 and in
the period from 1979-1980 to $ 34 a barrel. barrel. The
annual growth rate up through the 1970s was in the Emirates
of over 10% as a result of these price increases.
This situation brought immediate consequences: the rapid
emergence of large cities with modern infrastructure and the
large colonies of immigrants who were attracted to the
area's economic opportunities. Not many of the original
fishing population remained on the Gulf Coast.
The Iran -Iraq war broke out in the 1980s. Although the
Emirates managed to maintain some neutrality, the Iraqis
were assisted financially, thus avoiding a veritable "Iranization"
of the area. After the war ended, the Emirates emerged as
the Middle East's third largest oil producer after Saudi
Arabia and Libya.