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United States

Yearbook 2019

USA. The lawsuit against President Donald Trump during the year became the political key word, and the tool, in the fight to oust the president, especially during the final months of the year. Many believed that the so-called Russia inquiry would lead to prosecution, but it was another event and another country that would make the decision.

2019 United States

According to CountryAAH, the Democrats had long sought candles and lanterns for a reason to snatch Trump away from the presidential post. Special Russia investigator Robert Mueller, who would investigate possible Russian involvement in the 2016 presidential election, noted in March that even though the president "has not committed a crime, it [does not release him] either." This became for the White House "a complete and total acquittal of the president". Thus no national law.

2019 United StatesThe next chance for the Democrats came in July, when the president had the bad taste of attacking the "left-wing Congresswomen" Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, Ayanna Pressley, Ilhan Omar and Rashida Tlaib. The president stated that politicians "originally came from countries whose governments are complete disasters, the worst, most corrupt in the world." Therefore, he asked himself, "Why don't they go back to the completely wrecked and crime-ridden places they come from and help fix them?" This led to the House of Representatives voting a few days later to bring Trump to court. It was a resolution tabled by Texas Democrat Al Green, which justified his resolution that the president had "legitimized, and increased, fear and hatred of new Americans and of colored people."

It was not until September that House Speaker Nancy Pelosi announced that a formal judicial process would be initiated against the president. The reason was that a whistleblower had reported irregularities in a July 25 telephone conversation between Trump and Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyj. The US president should then have pressed Zelenskyj to investigate Democrat Joe Biden's son Hunter, whose actions in Ukraine had been the subject of corruption investigations. Trump, among other things, must have threatened with withdrawn military assistance to Ukraine. According to Pelosi, the president had admitted that he had asked the President of Ukraine to take measures that would benefit him politically before the 2020 presidential election. Trump himself denied that it was a quid pro quo. In addition, according to the whistleblower, the White House had tried to hide and secretly record the conversation between Trump and Zelenskyj.

On September 30, news came out that more foreign leaders should have been asked to perform personal services for Trump, including Australian Prime Minister Scott Morrison, who would have been asked if he could assist Justice Minister William Barr with an investigation that would discredit Robert Mueller and his Russia investigation. This call and its printout were also classified.

At the end of October, the judicial process started with several committee hearings of witnesses. These happened before closed doors. Only the Democrats had the right to call witnesses, which led to the Republicans doing everything to discredit them. The Republican mantra became that the Democrats had not produced a single first-witness, but only witnesses with information that could be classified as hearsay. Among the witnesses was William Taylor, acting US ambassador to Ukraine. According to him, the Trump administration demanded that Ukraine officially announce the launch of an investigation into Joe Biden and his son Hunter. So it was enough to inform the outside world that you should do this - not that you did. If not, the country would be denied US military assistance.

When such hearings became public in mid-November, it was time for the Democrats' star witnesses, some of whom had previously testified in front of closed doors. The hearings were now broadcast live on TV. Among those interviewed was US former US ambassador Marie Yovanovitch, who pulled in yet another key player in the drama by showing that Trump's personal lawyer Rudy Giuliani was more involved in the scandal than was previously known. Now Trump's security advisers in Ukraine, Lieutenant Alexander Vindman, Jennifer Williams, security adviser to Vice President Mike Pence, Kurt Volker, US special envoy to Ukraine, and Timothy Morrison at the National Security Council (NSC) were also questioned. A key witness was US Ambassador Gordon Sondland. According to him, there was no doubt that President Trump was withholding military assistance to Ukraine to launch an investigation into Democratic presidential candidate Joe Biden's son Hunter Biden. In addition, Sondland said that in order to be invited to the White House, Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyj must tell the outside world that an investigation has begun about Hunter Biden's suspected corruption in the Ukrainian gas company Burisma. Sondland's testimony also drew in two more important players - Vice President Mike Pence and Foreign Minister Mike Pompeo. However, these were forbidden by the White House to testify. In addition, Sondland said that in order to be invited to the White House, Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyj must tell the outside world that an investigation has begun about Hunter Biden's suspected corruption in the Ukrainian gas company Burisma. Sondland's testimony also drew in two more important players - Vice President Mike Pence and Foreign Minister Mike Pompeo. However, these were forbidden by the White House to testify. In addition, Sondland said that in order to be invited to the White House, Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyj must tell the outside world that an investigation has begun about Hunter Biden's suspected corruption in the Ukrainian gas company Burisma. Sondland's testimony also drew in two more important players - Vice President Mike Pence and Foreign Minister Mike Pompeo. However, these were forbidden by the White House to testify.

Then, on December 10, Democrats presented two formal charges against President Trump - abuse of power and obstruction of justice. The president was then formally accused of pressuring Ukraine to investigate political opponent Joe Biden and his son Hunter Biden. In addition, Trump should have hindered the investigation of the incident. Thus, it was these two charges that the House of Representatives Committee would decide on. Just over a week later, as expected, a majority of the House of Representatives voted to put the president before the national court. On the charge of abuse of power, 230 voted for and 197 against national law; on the charge of obstructing the congressional inquiry, 229 voted in favor and 198 against. President Donald Trump is now historic: this is only the third time an American president is facing state law. On the two previous occasions, the president was freed, and that is also likely to happen to Trump as the matter goes to the Senate, where Republicans have a majority. The vote will take place sometime in 2020.

The clash of the wall against Mexico continued during the year. To get congressional approval to build a wall against Mexico, in January, President Trump offered three years of protection to up to 1 million so-called Dreamers (young migrants who came to the United States as minors) and $ 1,600 million for border humanitarian aid and new technology for drug tracking at the border. As a thank you for this, he wanted $ 5.7 billion for the border wall. According to House Speaker, Democrat Nancy Pelosi, the proposal was "unacceptable" because Democrats wanted Trump to open the state apparatus, which has been partially shut down since December 22, 2018, before there could be any negotiations on it.

In response, at the end of February, Trump proclaimed national emergency in order to finance the border wall against Mexico. However, the state of emergency was abolished by the Senate in mid-March, after several Republican senators voted with the Democrats. But there were not enough people to stop the presidential vote that came the next day. Now, Trump is threatening to completely close the border with Mexico. But in early April, he had changed his mind, saying that Mexico would have a year to stop the flow of illegal drugs into the United States. If you do not succeed, the United States would impose customs duties on Mexican cars, and if that did not work, you would close the border.

At the end of May new bids came. The United States will impose new duties on all Mexican goods. If nothing is done about the migrant flow through the country to the United States, tariffs of 5% would be imposed from June 10. Thereafter, tariffs would be gradually increased by 5% every month until October until "the problem of illegal immigration is solved". A week passed, then Trump withdrew the US threat of duty. This, after Trump, according to Trump, agreed to allow the National Guard to monitor the borders to prevent migrants from entering the United States. Actually, this agreement was not new at all.

In December, the House of Representatives voted in favor of the new North American trade agreement USMCA (The United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement), which replaces the old NAFTA agreement between Canada, Mexico and the United States. The vote numbers were overwhelming, 385 against 41, and must be seen as perhaps the most important success of the 2019 president - even though the deal cost him some concessions to the Democrats.

In February, the United States announced that it would withdraw from the agreement with the Russian Federation on Nuclear Disarmament (Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces, INF), which it concluded with the then Soviet Union in 1987. According to Foreign Minister Mike Pompeo, it was because the Russian federation has breached the agreement. A day later, the Russian Federation also withdrew from the agreement, which expired in August and included medium and short-range robots. The US now said it would consider deploying ground-based medium-range robots in, for example, South Korea.

President Trump visited North Korean leader Kim Jong Un on two occasions during the year, first in Vietnam's capital Hanoi February 27-28, then in the demilitarized border zone between South and North Korea on June 30, when Trump was on his way home from the G20 summit in Japan.

The US trade war with China escalated during the year, in December to offer some glitter. In May, the latest tariff increase came into force with a 10-25% increase to a value of $ 200 billion. At the same time, it threatened to raise tariffs on more Chinese goods, this time a 25 percent increase in "virtually all remaining imports from China", according to US Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer and President Trump, worth $ 300 billion. China responded by raising the US $ 60 billion tariff on June 1. According to the Chinese Ministry of Finance, this applied to 5,000 products; half of these received the highest duty rate of 25%, the rest would be 5-20%.

In September, the trade war escalated further. China announced that it would impose new tariffs on US goods worth $ 75 billion. This involved just over 5,000 goods that would receive duties of between 5 and 10%. In addition, the 25 percent tax on American cars would be reintroduced. Trump responded lightning-fast (on Twitter, admittedly) and ordered "US companies to immediately start looking for alternatives to China". Then, the White House announced that the United States would raise tariffs on Chinese goods worth a total of $ 550 billion. In addition, the existing 25% duty on Chinese goods would be increased to 30%, while the current 10% duty would be increased to 15%.

In December, the first glimmer of light came, when China and the United States agreed on a first phase of a new trade agreement between the countries. The agreement - after a nearly two-year trade war - really only means that it has been agreed to continue the discussions. Namely, the United States will retain 25% duty on goods for $ 250 billion from China, but reduce them from 15 to 7.5% on goods for $ 120 billion.

Another glimmer of light from the humorous side, albeit an unintentional one from the sender, was President Trump's attempt in August to buy Greenland from Denmark, because, according to White House adviser Larry Kudlow, "knows one thing or another about real estate deals". The Danish government chose not to comment on the matter, which may not be wise considering that Trump was trumpeting: "Based on Prime Minister Mette Frederiksen's comments that she does not want to discuss a sale of Greenland, I postpone our planned meeting in two weeks another time." Former US ambassador to Denmark Rufus Gifford later went out and apologized to both Denmark and Greenland for the president's efforts, writing about Trump: “He asked the queen for an invitation to a state visit. She invited him. He accepted. They have been waiting for him for weeks at the castle. Denmark and Greenland reject his vanity project. He is ignoring the whole country. He's a kid. "

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