Central African Republic 2019
Central African Republic. After 18 months of negotiations, a peace agreement was signed in early February between the government and 14 armed rebel groups. None of the previous agreements concluded since 2012 have lasted any longer. The agreement stipulated that a national unity government should be formed with the participation of all the country’s political and social movements. The prime minister would be taken from the rebel side. Instead of the general amnesty requested by the rebels, a special body would be set up to bring the perpetrator to justice. Newly formed military associations, consisting of both government soldiers and rebels, were given the right to disarm militia soldiers and help them back into society. In order to facilitate cooperation, the government, the militia and the African Union would meet monthly in an executive committee.
However, the prime minister who took office in early March was a person close to President Faustin-Archange Touadéra, Firmin Ngrébada. He has previously been prime minister and led the delegation during this year’s peace talks in Sudan’s capital Khartoum. The new government presented by Ngrébada meant no changes to the heavy items and six of the 14 rebel groups that signed the agreement were without ministerial posts. This led to strong dissatisfaction. In mid-March, eleven of the rebel groups demanded that the prime minister be replaced, but they still said they were behind the peace agreement. This resulted in a reformed government, but one of the groups, the Central African People’s Democratic Front (FDPC).
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In April, fighting broke out between the FDPC and the UN force MINUSCA, which joined the offensive after the militia set up roadblocks along the road leading from the Central African Republic to Cameroon. In September, around 40 people were killed when the FDPC and the Movement for Central Africa’s Freedom Fighters for Justice (MLCJ) rallied in the northeastern part of the country.
The work of disarming the militias got grit on the machinery when the warlord Mahamat Alkatim, leader of the Central African Patriotic Movement (MPC), left the post as military adviser to the government in August. According to Alkatim, the opportunities for him to form the new security forces with elements of rebels were too small. Earlier this month, the government had demanded that the rebels first be disarmed, while they in turn demanded to be accommodated somewhere before handing over their weapons. However, there was no money to pay for housing for the militiamen.
In September, the UN eased the current arms embargo on the country. If the UN receives a warning at least 20 days in advance, the purchase of weapons of a certain caliber is allowed. In recent years, the Russian Federation has on two occasions been authorized to sell weapons to the Central African Republic.
According to CountryAAH, the population of Central African Republic in 2019 was 4,745,074, ranking number 126 in the world. The population growth rate was 1.690% yearly, and the population density was 7.6169 people per km2.