Egypt. In January, Egypt and six other countries (Israel, Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Jordan and Palestine) agreed to set up the Eastern Mediterranean gas forum to facilitate cooperation in natural gas extraction. The office is to be located in Cairo. In the same month, Egypt received praise from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) for economic reforms that have led to increased growth and reduced unemployment. Shortly thereafter, a new health insurance system was promised, which will be expanded until 2033. The system will pay the country’s poorest residents health care costs. In July, an Egyptian newspaper reported that the number of Egyptians living below the poverty line, defined as less than the equivalent of $ 1.4 per day to live on per day, has increased significantly in recent years.
- ABBREVIATIONFINDER.ORG: Click to see the meanings of 3-letter acronym and abbreviation of EGY in general and in geography as Egypt in particular.
|Land area||1,001,450 km²|
|Residents per km²||104|
|Income per capita||$ 12,700|
|ISO 3166 code||EG|
|Time zone UTC||+2|
|Geographic coordinates||27 00 N, 30 00 O|
In February, Amnesty International and other human rights organizations raised alarms that the number of executions was increasing and at the same time pointed to shortcomings in the trials that resulted in the death penalty. The authorities were also accused of forcing recognition through torture.
In April, Parliament approved amendments to the constitution, which were subsequently also supported in a referendum. Journalists reported that supporters of the president distributed food packages to people outside the polling stations. 89% of voters were positive about the constitutional changes, but voter turnout was only 44%. The term of office of the President was extended from four to six years. The rule is to be applied to the current term, which means that Abd al-Fattah al-Sisi, who has been president since 2014 and re-elected in 2018, can remain until 2024. In addition, al-Sisi is allowed to stand for another re-election, despite the fact that he at that point sat the two permitted terms of office. Parliament later approved that the president’s influence over the judiciary be increased by the right to appoint, among other things, the Prosecutor General and the President of the Constitutional Court. The military also gained more power when the rules that were introduced in 2014 and which gives the defense management the right to approve who should be defense minister became permanent. The Armed Forces must now also act as guarantor for maintaining the constitution, in addition to the task of protecting the country.
In September, demonstrations demanding al-Sisi’s departure took place in several of the country’s cities, including Cairo. This is despite the fact that public manifestations have been banned since 2013. The regime responded by sending the police to the demonstrators and according to human rights organizations, a couple of thousand people were arrested for just over a week. In addition, meetings in support of the president have been held with participants who have been pushed there by bus.
In June, President Muhammad Mursi collapsed in connection with a trial. He was pronounced dead after being taken to hospital. Mursi had been imprisoned since being deposed by the military in 2013 after just over a year as president. In the following years he was tried several times and sentenced to life imprisonment as well as death. According to authorities, Mursi died of a heart attack.
Work on the planned new administrative capital east of Cairo continued. In connection with the Coptic Christmas in January, a new cathedral with a seat for 8,000 people was inaugurated. On the same day, President al-Sisi also inaugurated a new mosque called al-Fattah al-Alim, which is Egypt’s largest. al-Sisi presented himself as the head defender of Muslim extremists, saying that the inauguration of two shrines on the same day would be seen as a message of unity. In January, the work was also completed to preserve Pharaoh Tutankhamun’s tomb in the Valley of the Kings.
Pharaohs in Egypt
Egypt is known for its pyramids. Even outside Cairo, one can make a time travel to the magnificent monuments of the ancient capitals of Egypt, Memphis and Heliopolis. During the first heyday of the country, during the Old Kingdom, the tomb pyramids of the Pharaohs of Kheops, Khefren, and Mykerinos, known throughout the world, were guarded in Giza and guarded by an enigmatic sphinx. Even older monuments can be seen in nearby Sakkar. The pictorial treasures of its necropolis tombs tell of people’s daily lives more than 4,500 years ago. The stepped pyramid of Pharaoh Djoser is the first known all-stone building in history and the predecessor of the Giza Trio. The center of the New Kingdom (1567–1085 BCE) was Theba on the east bank of the Nile, now called Luxor, and the center of Theba was the Temple of Karnak. Theba served the most powerful god in the world, Ammon. Only Pharaoh Ekhnaton defied Ammon by trying to elevate the sun god Aton beyond this, but without success. The wide street connects the Karnak Temple to another well-preserved Ramses II fame and majestic Luxor temple.
The west bank of the Nile was reserved for the dead. The most famous discovery in the Valley of the Kings was made in 1922, when British archaeologist Carter opened the unpaved grave of Pharaoh Tutankhamun, who died young. The queens were buried more modestly than their husbands in their own valley. The West Bank is also worth a visit to the death temple of the female pharaoh Hatshepsut, the death temple of the warrior Pharaoh Ramses III to Medinet Habu, and two colossuses named after the Greek fable Memnon, whose miraculous humming statues were visited by Roman tourists two years ago.
The Nile, the sweet water of the stream, and life along the river remain Mika Waltar’s points of interest to You as he wanders far from home. For many tourists, cruising the Nile is also the highlight of a visit to Egypt. Cozy cruise ships fly along the river alongside traditional felukka boats. Between Luxor and Aswan, ships stop in Edfu at the temple of the hawk god Horus and at the temple dedicated to the crocodile god Sobek of Kom Ombo.
Aswan is already in the lobby of a black Africa. A large portion of the city’s residents are Nubians who migrated from villages left under a large dam. Aswan is best explored on a feluka ride as the Elephant Island, Kitchener Botanical Gardens and the tomb mausoleum of Ismailite Director Aga Khan fly past. Beneath the dam are the Temple of Isis, originally built on the island of Philae and relocated to the island of Agilkia in 1970, and the Abu Simbel Temple dedicated to Ramses II, three hundred kilometers from Aswan, which was threatened by Lake Nasser.
According to CountryAAH, the population of Egypt in 2019 was 100,387,962, ranking number 14 in the world. The population growth rate was 2.000% yearly, and the population density was 100.8469 people per km2.