Nepal. In the spring, a record number of climbers tried to reach the summit of Mount Everest. The large number in combination with unusually strong winds caused cows to be formed on the rock. As a result, more climbers than usual were killed in the cold. In just a few weeks in May, eleven people died. Following criticism, the authorities considered placing higher demands in terms of experience and good health on those who were granted climbing permits.
The summer monsoon rains were more intense than usual. It affected Nepal, as did India, Bangladesh and Pakistan. In Nepal, the Baghmati River was flooded at the same time as roads, bridges and buildings were damaged. As a result of landslides, 90 people perished in July.
In September, India and Nepal inaugurated the first oil pipeline in South Asia that crosses national borders. The project was part of India’s attempt to increase its influence in Nepal, where China also makes great claims. The oil pipeline would allow Nepal to import oil from India at a lower price. India is Nepal’s only oil supplier.
During a visit by China’s President Xi Jinping in October, several collaborative projects in education and trade were signed. The countries also signed an agreement on a railway across the border from Tibet to Kathmandu. The railway was part of China’s new silk road (Belt and Road Initiative, BRI), which will link Asia with Europe and Africa via both railways and roads on land and at sea.
According to Reuters news agency, Xi Jinping’s visit to Nepal was the first of a 22-year-old Chinese head of state.
Later that month, Nepal’s defense minister visited his Chinese counterpart in Beijing. At that time, an agreement was signed that China would give Nepal $ 21 million in emergency aid in the coming years.
- ABBREVIATIONFINDER.ORG: Click to see the meanings of 3-letter acronym and abbreviation of NPL in general and in geography as Nepal in particular.
2008 From Kingdoms to Republic
On December 28, 2007, the Transitional Parliament passed a bill that made the country a republic. However, it was only with the ratification of the proposal in the Constitutional Assembly on May 28, 2008, that the country’s days as kingdoms were finally over. It is now a federal democratic republic.
The Constitutional Assembly was elected on April 10, 2008, and its main purpose is to give the country a new constitution. This must be done within a period of 2 years. During the same period, the Assembly also has a function as the legislative power of the country. It consists of 601 members, of whom 240 were elected by direct constituency, 335 seats were occupied through proportional representation, and 26 seats were appointed. The Maoist Party (CPN (M)) became the largest in the April elections, receiving half of the 240 constituencies and 30% of the proportional mandates. In late June, the parties in the Assembly agreed on a distribution key for the 26 nominated members. The Maoists got 9, the Congress Party and the country’s second Communist Party each got 5, and the rest went to smaller parties.
Following the transformation into a republic, the first important task of the Constitutional Assembly was to appoint a president. In June, the acting prime minister and chairman of the Congress party, Girija Prasad Koirala, filed his resignation petition for the assembly. The reason was that the Moists opposed his tenure as presidential candidate. On July 19, the first round of the presidential election was conducted in the Constituent Assembly. Ram Baran Yadav of the Congress Party got 283 votes while Maoist-backed Ram Raja Prasad Singh got 270. In the second round of the July 21 election, Yadav got 308 votes out of the 590 cast. He thus became Nepal’s first president and was placed in the post 2 days later.
Maoese President Prachanda was elected the first prime minister of the republic in August 2008. However, he had to leave office as early as May 2009 when his attempt to fire the army chief of staff, General Rookmangud Katawal, failed. The president opposed the firing. General Katawal had bitterly opposed the incorporation of the Maoists into the army, as stipulated in the peace agreement, and this was the reason for Prachanda’s intention to remove him. The clash between the president and the prime minister led to the collapse of the government coalition. Instead, Madhav Kumar Nepal was appointed prime minister. Behind him he spent 15 years as chairman of Nepal’s Communist Party, CPN (UML). The Maoists stood outside the new government and have since worked actively to destabilize it through, among other things. frequent general strikes.
In November 2008, the country’s Supreme Court issued a ruling paving the way for same-sex marriage. Nepal thus became the first country in Asia to take this step. In July 2009, the country abolished the death penalty – as one of the first countries in Asia.
According to CountryAAH, the population of Nepal in 2019 was 28,608,599, ranking number 49 in the world. The population growth rate was 1.830% yearly, and the population density was 199.5725 people per km2.