According to SOFTWARELEVERAGE, Tlaxcala is a state in Mexico, located east of Mexico City. To the west, Tlaxcala shares a border with the state of Mexico, to the northeast with Hidalgo, and to the north east and south with Puebla. The state is the smallest state in Mexico with an area of 4,037 km².
The capital is also called Tlaxcala, and in 2000 had a population of 73,184. The town was founded in 1520 by Hernán Cortés. The major cities of Apizaco, Calpulapan, Chiautempan, Huamantla, as well as the pre-Columbian ruins Cacaxtla and Xochitécatl are also located in the state. The state has more than 1,000 archeological sites with only seven fully excavated and open to the public.
The state was home to the ancient Olmeca-Xicalanca civilization. The background of the Olmeca-Xicalanca is not known with certainty, but it is assumed that they come from the Gulf Coast area, and were perhaps Mayan settlers who arrived in this part of central Mexico around the year 400.
The area where the modern city is located today was ruled by a coalition of four kingdoms called Tepeticpac, Ocotelolco, Tizatlan and Quiahuiztlan that were united in the 14th century to defend themselves against the Aztecs and other enemies.
Tlaxcala was one of the most important areas of pre-Columbian times, never conquered by the Aztecs; the Tlaxcaltecas supported Hernán Cortés in his conquest of Mexico in the early 16th century. The name “Tlaxcala” means “The place with bread made from corn kernels”.
In the peaceful times of the Aztec Empire, it could be difficult to obtain supplies, and then they had to resort to so-called flower wars ( read here ) – a misleading term for battles that were staged solely to provide prisoners. The poetic name referred to the battlefield, where the richly decorated warriors fell like harvested flowers. These were actually ceremonial tournaments in which the Aztecs challenged their enemies, primarily from Tlaxacala, which at this time was an independent and stubborn city-state that lay like an island in the middle of the Aztec Empire. The fighting was extremely brutal and lasted until the Aztecs thought they had enough prisoners, after which they went home with their live prey.
Archaeological finds reveal the presence of human life in Tlaxcala as early as 10,000 BC, where nomadic hunters and gatherers roamed the area.
The state’s most important exports are textiles, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. Today, modern industries bring new prosperity to the residents, but they also threaten the region’s unique customs and traditions.
The highest point in Tlaxcala is the extinct volcano La Malinche. Nahuatl named it ‘Matlalcueyetl’, meaning ‘woman with blue skirt’.
The first Saturday after August 15, the state celebrates ” La Huamantlada “, similar to the tradition in Pamplona, Spain. Around. 12 noon, 12 angry bulls are released into the streets, and hundreds of participants spend the next two hours running in front of them.
700 – Olmec-Xicalanca built the city of Cacaxtla.
1450-1454 – The Aztecs suffered from overgrowth and severe drought during this period, which led to famine and many deaths in the central Mexican highlands. Ixtlilxochitl reports that the Flower War began ‘as a reaction’ to the famine. The priests of Mexico [Tenochtitlan] said that the gods were angry with the empire, and that in order to appease them, it was necessary to sacrifice many men, and to appease them, it was necessary to sacrifice many men, and that this should happen regularly. Thus Tenochtitlan (the capital of the Aztecs), Texcoco, Tlaxcala, Cholula, and Huejotzingoagreed to engage in flower warfare for the purpose of sacrificing people to the gods. Another and perhaps more important purpose of the Flower Wars was to show the superiority of the Aztec troops in their fighting skills.
1519 – Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés defeats the Tlaxcalta. When he realized that they were both opponents of the Aztecs, Cortés persuaded them to ally with him in the fight against the Aztec empire at Tenochtitlán to the west. In return for their support, he did not guarantee to levy taxes on them, or confiscate their land. In 1521, the alliance succeeded in gaining control of central Mexico. Afterwards, Tlaxcala continued to help the Spaniards fight against other native tribes and settle in the newly conquered territories.
1525 – The capital Tlaxcala is founded on October 3 and municipal status in 1813. The city was designated a diocese, but eventually lost this status to Puebla (which had a cathedral) as the population declined.
1823 – Puebla tries unsuccessfully to annex Tlaxcala. From 1836 to 1847, the state belonged to the Department of Mexico.
1847 – In May, the territory becomes independent again, until it finally reaches state status in 1857.
1910 – The Mexican Revolution of 1910 quickly puts an end to the Porfirio Díaz era, but the peasant uprisings and struggles between different factions lasted until 1917. Díaz, ruled Mexico in 1877-1880 and 1884-1911.
1960s – The city of Tenancingo, is today considered to be the epicenter of sex trafficking in Mexico, beginning in the 60s. Sexual exploitation, human trafficking and pimping are a major source of income for the city, although an exact amount in dollars is not known. See Pimp City: A Journey to the Center of the Sex Trade (2014) here. According to the documentary, the entire political structure and police in the city are involved in human and sex trafficking.