United Arab Emirates 2019
Until 1914, the Saudi state was rebuilt and became a factor of power in central Arabia, posing a threat to the Ottomans as well. Russia, France and Germany, in turn, tried to reinforce their influence in the region. It forced the British to formalize relations with the “ceasefire states”, Bahrain, Oman and Kuwait, leaving the responsibility of foreign policy to the English government.
The first World War, which also marked the end of the Ottoman Empire and meant independence for some of the countries of the Arabian Peninsula, did not change the relationship between Britain and the Ceasefire States. London had a great influence on the leader of the new kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Abd al-Aziz. As something new, air routes were established with airports in the Gulf region, which, together with the airports in Egypt, Palestine and Iraq, played an important role.
In the interwar period, Britain concentrated its attention on Egypt and Iraq, where oil reserves had already begun. After the end of World War II, relations between the Arab states changed significantly. In 1945, the Arab League was established, with the participation of the countries that had achieved a certain degree of independence.
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By the early 1960s, it had become clear that oil deposits in the Middle East were among the largest in the world. The United States and the United Kingdom, in collaboration, sought to maintain control over the Gulf region, where the countries’ revenues for almost 100% came from the oil.
Abd al-Nasser’s growing influence in the Arab world forced the English to give more power to the local governments in the protectorate. In 1968 it was decided to withdraw all military from the area; the same year was established as a subdivision of OPEC, the oil producing countries association, OPAEC, which consisted exclusively of the Arab oil exporting countries.
When the British finally withdrew from the area in 1971, a major extraction of the wells in Abu Dhabi started. The establishment of internal borders in the region was of great importance. At the British initiative, the same year, the United Arab Emirates was created without the participation of Qatar or Bahrain.
Immediately after its founding, the new state was forced into a conflict with Iran, which, with reference to history, invaded the islands of Abu Mussa, Tunb al-Cubra and Tunb al-Sughra in the Strait of Hormuz. In the beginning, there was a steady growth in oil extraction, first and foremost in the three largest emirates: Abu Dhabi, which accounted for 79%, Dubayy and Sharja, while increasing national control over the extraction.
When OPEC decided in 1973 to raise oil prices by 70% while reducing production by 5%, a new era for relations with the industrialized world began. The consequences of this policy were revolutionary. From spot prices of $ 1.5 a. In the early 1970s, prices increased in 1973 to $ 10 and in the period from 1979-1980 to $ 34 a barrel. barrel. The annual growth rate up through the 1970s was in the Emirates of over 10% as a result of these price increases.
This situation brought immediate consequences: the rapid emergence of large cities with modern infrastructure and the large colonies of immigrants who were attracted to the area’s economic opportunities. Not many of the original fishing population remained on the Gulf Coast.
The Iran -Iraq war broke out in the 1980s. Although the Emirates managed to maintain some neutrality, the Iraqis were assisted financially, thus avoiding a veritable “Iranization” of the area. After the war ended, the Emirates emerged as the Middle East’s third largest oil producer after Saudi Arabia and Libya.
According to CountryAAH, the population of United Arab Emirates in 2019 was 9,770,418, ranking number 92 in the world. The population growth rate was 1.450% yearly, and the population density was 116.8724 people per km2.