What is the Capital City of Burundi?

By | May 19, 2024

Bujumbura, the capital and largest city of Burundi, is located on the northeastern shore of Lake Tanganyika. As the political, economic, and cultural heart of the country, Bujumbura plays a crucial role in Burundi’s development. This comprehensive overview will delve into various aspects of Bujumbura, including city facts, major landmarks, climate overview, and historical capitals of Burundi, culminating in a broad understanding of the country itself.

City Facts

  • Area: 86.54 km²
  • Population: Approximately 1.2 million (2023)
  • Time Zone: Central Africa Time (CAT), UTC +2
  • Highest Mountain: Mount Heha, with an elevation of 2,684 meters, located near Bujumbura
  • Longest River: Ruzizi River, which flows from Lake Kivu to Lake Tanganyika

Major Landmarks

Lake Tanganyika

Lake Tanganyika, one of the African Great Lakes, is the second-oldest and second-deepest freshwater lake in the world. It is a crucial natural resource for Bujumbura, providing water, fish, and a transportation route. The lake’s shores are lined with beautiful beaches and offer various recreational activities, including swimming, fishing, and boating.

Bujumbura Central Market

The Bujumbura Central Market is a bustling hub of commerce and daily life in the city. It is the largest market in Burundi, offering a wide range of goods, from fresh produce and local crafts to electronics and clothing. The market is a vibrant place that reflects the diversity and vitality of the local economy.

Livingstone-Stanley Monument

Located near Bujumbura, the Livingstone-Stanley Monument commemorates the famous meeting between explorers David Livingstone and Henry Morton Stanley in 1871. The monument is a significant historical site and offers a glimpse into the era of exploration and colonial history in Africa.

Rusizi National Park

Rusizi National Park, located near Bujumbura, is a protected area that showcases the rich biodiversity of the region. The park is home to various wildlife species, including hippos, crocodiles, and numerous bird species. It is a popular destination for nature enthusiasts and bird watchers.

Bujumbura Cathedral

The Bujumbura Cathedral, also known as the Regina Mundi Cathedral, is one of the largest and most important religious buildings in Burundi. It serves as the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bujumbura and is a significant center of worship and community activities.

Musée Vivant

Musée Vivant is a natural history museum and zoo located in Bujumbura. It features exhibits on Burundi’s flora and fauna, as well as traditional crafts and cultural artifacts. The zoo houses a variety of animals native to the region, making it an educational and recreational site for visitors.

Climate Overview

Bujumbura experiences a tropical savanna climate with distinct wet and dry seasons. The city enjoys warm temperatures year-round, with the wet season occurring from November to April and the dry season from May to October.

Average Monthly Climate Data

Month Average Temperature (°C) Average Precipitation (mm) Average Sunny Days
January 25.3 115 18
February 25.4 100 17
March 25.3 130 16
April 25.0 170 15
May 24.4 50 24
June 24.1 15 27
July 24.1 10 29
August 24.6 15 29
September 25.2 45 26
October 25.4 90 23
November 25.2 125 20
December 25.2 110 18

Historical Capitals of Burundi

Gitega (Current Capital Since 2019)

Gitega is the second-largest city in Burundi and was declared the political capital of the country in January 2019, while Bujumbura remains the economic capital. Located in the central part of the country, Gitega is known for its historical significance and cultural heritage. It hosts several important institutions, including the National Museum of Gitega, which houses a collection of traditional artifacts and exhibits on Burundian history.

Historical Significance of Gitega

Gitega has long been an important cultural and political center in Burundi. It was historically a seat of the Burundian monarchy and continues to be a focal point for cultural activities. The city’s central location makes it an ideal administrative center, and the decision to move the political capital to Gitega reflects an effort to decentralize government functions and promote regional development.

Country Facts

  • Population: Approximately 12.3 million (2023)
  • Area: 27,834 km²
  • Largest City: Bujumbura
  • Currency: Burundian Franc (BIF)
  • Official Languages: Kirundi, French, English
  • ISO Country Codes: BI, BDI

Political Structure

Burundi is a presidential republic. The President is both the head of state and the head of government. The country has a multi-party political system, and its legislative body is the National Assembly, complemented by a Senate.


Burundi is a landlocked country in East Africa, bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and south, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west. The terrain is primarily hilly and mountainous, with a significant portion of the country lying within the Albertine Rift, part of the Great Rift Valley.


The economy of Burundi is largely based on agriculture, with coffee and tea being the main export crops. The country also relies on subsistence farming, with a large portion of the population engaged in agriculture. Despite natural resources, Burundi faces economic challenges, including poverty, infrastructure deficits, and political instability.

Culture and Heritage

Burundi has a rich cultural heritage, deeply rooted in traditional music, dance, and crafts. The country’s cultural traditions are reflected in various festivals, rituals, and ceremonies. Drumming is an integral part of Burundian culture, with the Royal Drummers of Burundi being internationally renowned. Traditional dances, such as the Intore dance, are also significant cultural expressions.

Education and Science

Education in Burundi has made progress, but challenges remain in terms of access and quality. The country has several universities and higher education institutions, with the University of Burundi being the leading public university. Efforts are ongoing to improve educational infrastructure and literacy rates, particularly in rural areas.


Burundi offers a range of tourist attractions, including natural parks, cultural sites, and historical landmarks. Popular destinations include Rusizi National Park, Lake Tanganyika, and the cities of Bujumbura and Gitega. Despite its tourism potential, the sector faces challenges due to political instability and infrastructure limitations.

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