According to SHOPPINGPICKS, Yucatán is one of Mexico’s 31 states located in the northern part of the Yucatán Peninsula. It borders the Mexican states of Campeche to the southwest and Quintana Roo to the east and southeast, as well as the Gulf of Mexico to the north and west.
The state is best known for its Mayan ruins (see overview here ). There are between 2600-2700 ruins, 17 of which have been restored and opened to the public.
The Maya flourished and established one of their largest cities, Chichen Itza, in what is now Yucatán, where they also between the years 300 and 900 founded the cities of Uxmal, Izamal, Motul, Mayapan, Ek ‘Balam and Ichcaanzihóo (also called T’ho), and Merida. During the Classical period (500 BC-250 AD), they appeared in Quintana Roo, where they established ceremonial centers on Coba, Dzibanche, and Kohunlich. Quintana Roo was considered the gateway to the world of the Mayans.
The geographical distribution of the Mayan civilization known as the Mayan area stretched across the southern Mexican states of Chiapas, Tabasco and the Yucatán Peninsula: Quintana Roo, Campeche and Yucatán. The Mayan region also extended throughout the northern Central American region and to present-day Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, and western Honduras.
According to legend, when Francisco Hernández de Córdova arrived on the coast of Yucatán, he asked the natives where he was. They replied in their mother tongue that they did not understand what he was saying. Because Córdova thought their answer sounded like the word Yucatán, he gave this name to the region.
The Chicxulub Crater is an ancient impact crater, half of which is underground on the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico and the other half is under the seabed off the peninsula. The center is located approximately where the city of Chicxulub is located. Studies have shown that the event took place in the latter part of the Cretaceous for approx. 65.5 million years ago and was so violent that it caused a mass death of life on Earth. ( video )
Today, the Yucatán is the safest state in Mexico and Mérida was awarded the City of Peace Prize in 2011.
2500 BCE – The Mayans began as hunters and gatherers and migrated into the Yucatán.
o 600 EVT – The Mayans migrated to the northern areas of South America and established some of the earliest known cocoa plantations in the Yucatán. The cocoa beans, which were only reserved for the Mayan elite, were mixed with water to make an unsweetened beverage.
987 – The Toltecsthought they were following their god Quetzalcóatl to the area. According to their mythology, the Quetzalcóatl required human hearts as a sacrifice, and the Toltecs obeyed and performed these human sacrifices. The culture of the Toltecs had a great influence on the Maya in Yucatán. This can be clearly seen in Chichén-Itza.
1250 – By the end of the post-classical Mayan period, most cities are abandoned. It is still a mystery how this civilization could disintegrate.
1519 – Hernán Cortés makes a short stop at the Yucatán to rescue the shipwrecked Franciscan monk Jerónimo de Aguilar before continuing his journey to Veracruz.
1540 – Francisco de Montejo founds the city of Campeche in the Mexican state of the same name.
1542 – The city of Mérida, today the capital of the state, was founded by Francisco de Montejo on the site of the former city of T’ho.
1562 – In an attempt to convert the indigenous peoples to the Catholic faith, the Franciscan monks built more than 30 monasteries in Yucatán in the hope of replacing Mayan culture with Christianity. Franciscan monk Fray Diego De Landa ordered that all handmade Mayan books and statues be destroyed. Few of these rare and important cultural artifacts survived. In addition, Spanish oppression and disease significantly reduced the native population from about 5 million in 1500 to 3.5 million a century later.
1648 – Yellow fever epidemic.
1761 – Jacinto Canek, a Mayan-educated monk, leads a revolt against the government. The fighting resulted in the deaths of thousands of natives and the execution of Canek in Mérida.
1821 – When Mexico gains independence from Spain, the Yucatán becomes part of the independent Mexican Empire, but remains a remote province until 1824, when it is divided into three states: Campeche, Quintana Roo and Yucatán.
1823 – Yucatán becomes part of Mexico.
1988 – Chichén Itzá is inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
Zacatecas is a state in Mexico, which borders to the north with Durango and Coahuila, to the east with San Luis Potosi, to the south with Aguascalientes and Jalisco, to the west with Jalisco and Durango.
The capital is called as the state of Zacatecas.
Before the arrival of the Spanish settlers, the area was inhabited by Zacateco, Caxcán and Guachichile. Because the exact history of Zacatecas’ native tribes is uncertain, the date of the area’s first settlement remains a mystery.
Archaeological evidence suggests that the Zacateco people established well-developed urban areas at La Florida, Alta Vista, and La Quemada before the 5th century. La Quemada was built as a mountain fortress, perhaps as protection against an invasion by the Chichimec people.
Zacatecas hosts the International Folklore Festival every year in August. The festival features dance and costumes from around the world.
1540-1542 – Mixtón war was fought between Caxcane -indianere and other Native Americans, including allies of the Aztec and Tlaxcalan, in northwestern Mexico against the Spanish conquerors. The war was named after Mixtón, a hill in southern Zacatecas that served as the native stronghold. Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza led the Spanish troops and Indians against Tenamextle ‘s army of 12,000 warriors. By the time the fighting ended, more than 10,000 Caxcans had fallen. Tenamextle managed to escape and continue to organize revolts against the Spaniards.
1546 – The city of Zacatecas is founded after the discovery of one of the richest silver springs in the world. In the early 18th century, the city produced one-fifth of the world’s silver.
1914 – On June 23, the largest and bloodiest battle of the Mexican Revolution takes place near the city of Zacatecas. The fight to overthrow Mexican President Victoriana Huerta. Panco Villa ‘s División del Norte defeated General Barrón ‘s troops and defended the city. The overwhelming victory demoralized Huerta’s supporters, leading to his resignation on July 15. It is known that up to 7000 soldiers lost their lives and 5000 were wounded, the number of civilian casualties was never documented.